Forged Fitting

Petrosadid: Forged Fitting

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Socket Weld Fittings

Socket weld fittings are used for applications where a strong and long-lasting connection is required. These type of pipe fittings feature a socket where the connecting pipe has to be fitted and welded (with a fillet-type seal weld). Socket weld connections are very reliable but are time-consuming to install, due to the necessary welding operations. Socket weld fittings are available in sizes from 1/8 to 4 inches and in pressure ratings from classes 2000 to 9000.

The typical applications for socket weld fittings are:

• Steam

• Explosive fluids/gas

• Acids and toxic fluids

• Long service / durable installations

Petrosadid: Forged Fitting

Threaded Fittings

Threaded fittings are used for non-critical pipelines such as water distribution, fire protection and cooling systems (low-pressure applications not subject to vibration, elongation and bending forces). Threaded fittings are not suited for fluids with variable temperatures, as sudden changes may crack the connection. Threaded fittings are available in gray cast iron, malleable iron, carbon steel ASTM A105, stainless steel A182 F304/F316 and in sizes from 1/8 inch to 4 inches with pressure ratings between 2000 and 6000. Although different types of threads are available, the most common type is the NPT (national pipe thread).

Petrosadid: Forged Fitting
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Elbow

Elbows are used to bend the pipework layout at 45 or 90 degrees. Forged elbows are manufactured according to ASME B16.11. A special type of elbow is the so-called “street” type.

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type Seamless, ERW, Welded, Fabricated
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation 45o, 90o -Threaded & Socket-Weld
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Tee

Tees are a forged steel fitting used to combine or divide process flow and Reducing Tees additionally allow for pipe size change. The run outlets of the tee are the two in-line outlets, and the branch is the third outlet.

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type Seamless, ERW, Welded, Fabricated
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Equal Tee, Reducing Tee, Threaded & Socket-Weld
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Cross

Cross fittings are used to combine or split pipe or tube sections. Cross fittings have one input and three outputs (or vice versa) that intersect at 90 degree angles. All three designs come in standard designs (in which all outlets/inlets are the same diameter) and reducing designs (in which one or more is a different size).

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Equal Tee, Reducing Tee, Threaded & Socket-Weld
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Union

• Unions are used as an alternative to flanges connection in low-pressure small bore piping placed within a piping configuration that will allow the assembly to be disassembled for inspection, repair, or replacement.

• Unions should be positioned in locations that will facilitate the easy removal of critical pieces of equipment.

• Unions can be threaded end or socket weld ends. There are three pieces in a union, a nut, a female end, and a male end. When the female and male ends are joined, the nuts provide the necessary pressure to seal the joint.

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Threaded & Socket-Weld
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Coupling

• It is used to connect two lengths of pipe, and Half-coupling is screwed onto the pipe, while the other end is made to be tightly inserted, or welded, onto the other end to pipe or vessel.

• Standard Couplings have female threads or open sockets at both ends, whereas reducing couplings connect smaller pipes to larger ones.

• There are three types of coupling available;

1- Full Coupling

Full Coupling is used for connecting small bore pipes. It used to connect pipe to pipe or pipe to swage or nipple. It can be threaded or socket ends types.

2- Half Coupling

Half Coupling is used for small bore branching from a vessel or large pipe. It can be threaded or socket type. It has a socket or thread end on only one side.

3- Reducing Coupling

Reducing coupling is used to connect two different sizes of pipe. It is like concentric reducer that maintains a center line of the pipe but small in size.

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Full Coupling, Half Coupling, Reducing Coupling Threaded & Socket-Weld
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Cap and Head Plug

• The plug, like a cap, is designed to close off the end of a run of pipe.

• Plugs are manufactured for screwed fittings with male threads and are screwed into the end of a pipe to create a seal, whereas, Caps have female threads.

• They come with different head types, including: hex, square, and round.

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Cap: Threaded & Socket-Weld
Plug: Only Threaded
Hex Plug, Square Plug, Round Plug
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Nipple

• To facilitate the assembly of screwed and socket-weld fittings, small lengths of pipe called pipe nipples are used between fittings.

• Many companies will use 3” as the standard minimum for pipe nipples. This length will accommodate the amount of pipe lost inside the fitting on each end as well as provide sufficient wrench clearance during assembly for the larger screwed and socket-weld pipe sizes.

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Only Threaded
Barrel nipples, close nipple, hex. nipple, welding nipple
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Boss
Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Only Threaded
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Head Bussing

Bushings are forged steel fittings that allow for a change in pipe size. Pictured here is the hex head bushing, which is most commonly used.

Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Only Threaded
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Insert
Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation Only Threaded
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2
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Swage Nipples

• Swages are functionally similar to reducers to make reductions in the line size on a straight run of pipe, However, they are specifically designed for screwed and socket-weld pipe.

• They have male (external) threads and can be connected to other screwed fittings without the use of a pipe nipple.

• Swages, like reducers, are available in either a concentric or eccentric shape.

• Swages are also manufactured with different preparations on the two ends.

o BBE—bevel both ends

o TBE—thread both ends

o PBE—plain both ends

o BLE/TSE—bevel large end/thread small end

o PLE/TSE—plain large end/thread small end

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Standard Specification for Forged Tee
Dimensions ASME B16.11
BS 3799
NPT threads conform to ASME B1.20.1
Size 1/4”-4”
Type -
Class 2000 LBS - 9000 LBS
Variation BBE, TBE, PBE, BLE/TSE, PLE/TSE
Test Certificate MTC as per EN10204 Type 3.1 and EN10204 Type 3.2

Highlights of the Forged Fittings

Materials

ASTM A105

A350 (LF1, LF2, LF3)

ASTM A182 (Gr. 304, 304H, 309, 310, 316, 316L, 317L, 321, 347, 904L)

ASTM A182 (Gr. F 5, F 9, F 11, F 12, F 22, F 91)

ASTM A694 (Gr. F42, F46, F56, F52, F60, F65, F70)

ASTM A182 (Gr. F51, F52, F53, F54, F55, F57, F59, F60, F61),

UNS S31803, S32205, S32760, S32750

ASTM SB 336, ASTM SB 564 / 160 / 163 / 164 / 166 / 472, UNS 2200 (NICKEL 200) , UNS 2201 (NICKEL 201 ) , UNS 4400 (MONEL 400 ) , UNS 8020 ( ALLOY 20 / 20 CB 3 ) , UNS 8825 INCONEL (825) , UNS 6600 (INCONEL 600 ) , UNS 6601 (INCONEL 601) , UNS 6625 (INCONEL 625), UNS 10276 (HASTELLOY C 276)

ASTM SB 111 UNS No. C10100 , C10200 , C10300 , C10800 , C12000, C12200, C70600, C71500,

ASTM SB 466 UNS No. C70600 ( CU -NI- 90/10) , C71500 ( CU -NI- 70/30)

Standard

The dimensions of forged fittings are defined by ASME B16.11, MSS-SP 83, and MSS-SP 95 to match ASME B36.10 and ASME B36.19 pipes.

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